Sunday, January 31, 2016


US Military Plans Cyborg Soldiers with PC-Brain Connections

The US military announced a new project whose goal is to implant a chip and a port in the brains of soldiers so they can communicate directly with computers and turn them into cyborg fighting machines … or at least into soldiers who don’t need to put down their guns to swipe their tablets. The ultimate goal, according to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), is to create devices that can be controlled by thought alone.
The project is called the Neural Engineering System Design (NESD) and the project’s leaders aim to improve current neural interfaces by many orders of magnitude. To do that will require the ability to connect a computer interface to millions of individual neurons (today’s interfaces connect in bulk to many hundreds at a time) in order to increase communications speed, improve control and reduce interference.
NESD program manager Phillip Alveda envisions the implanted chip being one cubic centimeter (the size of a two-nickel stack) and having the ability to translate electrochemical signals into binary signals and vice versa at super-fast speeds. On the battlefield, the chip would ultimately connect to intelligent devices that would enhance a soldier’s vision, hearing and decision-making. Do any movies come to mind?
Non-military applications that DARPA says this technology could be applied to include controlling artificial limbs, improving or restoring sight and hearing and eliminating the need for remote controls (not really, but that would be nice to have too).
headsOf course, much of the technology required to accomplish NESD hasn’t been developed yet. That will require innovations in neuroscience, synthetic biology, low-power electronics, photonics and medical device packaging, as well as advances in neuro-computation and neuron-communications. DARPA expects to get all of that in four years out of a $60 million budget from Presdient Obama’s BRAIN Initiative .
Just $60 million? Really? Would you let the government implant a chip in your brain that was developed for only $60 million?

Saturday, January 30, 2016

The Frightening Science and Politics of Cell Phone Safety. Electromagnetic Waves and the Health Impacts of Wireless Devices

In an article published in the New York Times last week entitled “At C.D.C., a Debate Behind Recommendations on Cellphone Risk”, author Danny Hakim discusses the controversy surrounding the potential health risks of using cell phones.
Hakim writes that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued guidelines recommending “caution in cellphone use”, due to the potentially harmful effects of radiation emitted by the wireless devices on human health. Included in the guidelines was information about reducing exposure among children. Just a few weeks after the CDC’s publication, and amid rising concerns about cell phone safety, the CDC rescinded the advisory completely.
Today, the CDC website takes an ambiguous stance on the issue, stating:
Can using a cell phone cause cancer?
There is no scientific evidence that provides a definite answer to that question. Some organizations recommend caution in cell phone use. More research is needed before we know if using cell phones causes health effects. (1)

Screen shot of CDC website
Hakim notes several agencies and individuals that have drawn stronger conclusions on the potential risks of such radiation. Among them is the International Agency for Research of Cancer, a branch of the World Health Organization, which listed the radio frequencies emitted by cell phones as a “possible carcinogen” in 2011.(2) Hakim identifies several countries’ health authorities, including, Finland, the United Kingdom and Israel issuing public warnings about the potential hazards of non-ionizing radiation from cell phones.
As one of the foremost organizations tasked with ensuring the health and safety of Americans, it is troubling that the CDC has failed to warn us of the potential dangers of these devices. We find that even a cursory review of the scientific literature reveals a significant body of research that points to the harmful effects of cell phone radiation. Here is some of the most compelling evidence:
Health Issues in Children
  • According to research, radiation from cell phones is more easily absorbed by children than adults.
Wiart J, Hadjem A, Wong MF, Bloch I. 2008. Analysis of RF exposure in the head tissues of children and adults. Phys Med Biol 53(13): 3681-95.
Wiedemann PM, Schutz H, Clauberg M. 2008. Influence of information about specific absorption rate (SAR) upon customers’ purchase decisions and safety evaluation of mobile phones. Bioelectromagnetics 29(2): 133-44.
Wang J, Fujiwara O. 2003. Comparison and Evaluation of Electromagnetic Absorption Characteristics in Realistic Human Head Models of Adult and Children for 900-MHz Mobile Telephones IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 51(3): 966-70.
Gandhi OP, Lazzi G, Furse CM. 1996. Electromagnetic absorption in the human head and neck for mobile telephones at 835 and 1900 MHz. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 44(10): 1884-97
  • A Danish study surveying more than 13,000 children found an 80% increase the likelihood of behavioral problems among children who use cell phones and whose mothers used cell phones during pregnancy.
Divan HA, Kheifets L, Obel C, Olsen J. 2008. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to cell phone use and behavioral problems in children. Epidemiology 19(4): 523-9.
  • Research indicates that long-term cell phone users run a significantly elevated risk of developing glioma, a brain tumor that is often cancerous. The research discovers the tumors usually appearing on the side of the head favored during cell phone conversations.
Lahkola A, Auvinen A, Raitanen J, Schoemaker MJ, Christensen HC, Feychting M, et al. 2007. Mobile phone use and risk of glioma in 5 North European countries. Int J Cancer 120(8): 1769-75
Hours M, Bernard M, Montestrucq L, Arslan M, Bergeret A, Deltour I, et al. 2007. [Cell Phones and Risk of brain and acoustic nerve tumours: the French INTERPHONE case
-control study]. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 55(5): 321-32.
  • Long-term exposure to cell phone radiation is linked with a 60% higher risk of developing a condition known as acoustic neuroma, a benign brain tumor.
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Hansson Mild K. 2009. Epidemiological evidence for an association between use of wireless phones and tumor diseases. Pathophysiology: in press
Kundi M. 2009. The Controversy about a Possible Relationship between Mobile Phone Use and Cancer. Environ Health Perspec 117(3): 316-24
  • Heavy cell phone use increases the risk of benign salivary gland tumors by 60%.
Sadetzki S, Chetrit A, Jarus-Hakak A, Cardis E, Deutch Y, Duvdevani S, et al. 2008. Cellular phone use and risk of benign and malignant parotid gland tumors –a nationwide case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 167(4): 457-67
  • Radiation from cell phones produces reactive oxygen species, which may contribute to DNA damage resulting in inflammatory conditions such as cancer and heart disease.
Phillips JL, Singh NP, Lai H. 2009. Electromagnetic fields and DNA damage.Pathophysiology 16(2-3): 79-88.
Boutros T, Chevet E, Metrakos P. 2008. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase/MAP kinase phosphatase regulation: roles in cell growth, death, and cancer. Pharmacol Rev 60(3): 261-310.
  • Brain cancer risk tripled among individuals who used cell phones for more than 15 hours monthly.
Hardell, L., and M. Carlberg. “Re: Mobile Phone Use and Brain Tumours in the CERENAT Case-control Study.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine 72, no. 1 (2014): 79.
The close proximity of cell phones carried in pant pockets to reproductive organs have led many to suspect a link between cellular radiation and infertility. Several studies point to the damaging effects of cell phone radiation on sperm:
  • Lower sperm quality among men who carried their cell phone in their pant pocket when compared to men who carried cell phones:
Kilgallon SJ, Simmons LW. 2005. Image content influences men’s semen quality. Biol Lett 1(3): 253-5.
  • Higher cell phone use linked with lower sperm quality.
Fejes I, Zavaczki Z, Szollosi J, Koloszar S, Daru J, Kovacs L, et al. 2005. Is there a relationship between cell phone use and semen quality? Arch Androl 51(5): 385-93.
  • Cell phone use associated with decreased sperm motility.
Davoudi M, Brossner C, Kuber W. 2002. The influence of electromagnetic waves on sperm motility. Journal für Urologie und Urogynäkologie 19: 19-22.
  • Men who used cell phones for more than four hours daily found to have lower sperm quality and 42% lower sperm count compared to those who didn’t use cell phones.
Agarwal A, Deepinder F, Sharma RK, Ranga G, Li J. 2008. Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study. Fertil Steril 89(1): 124-8.
Analysis of semen samples exposed to radiation from cell phones show sizeable decreases in sperm count, quality and higher levels of inflammatory markers.Agarwal A, Desai NR, Makker K, Varghese A, Mouradi R, Sabanegh E, et al. 2009. Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study. Fertil Steril 92(4): 1318-25.
  • Cell phone wave exposure appears to decrease the potential for fertilization in semen samples.
Falzone N, Huyser C, Becker P, Leszczynski D, Franken DR. 2011. The effect of pulsed 900-MHz GSM mobile phone radiation on the acrosome reaction, head morphometry and zona binding of human spermatozoa. Int J Androl 34(1): 20-6.
  • Cell phone use linked with erectile dysfunction.
Al–Ali, B. M., Patzak, J., Fischereder, K., Pummer, K., & Shamloul, R. (2013). Cell phone usage and erectile function. Central European Journal of Urology,66(1), 75–77.
Brain/Neurological Health
  • Electromagnetic frequencies from cell phones alter brain tissue activity by increasing glucose metabolism.
Volkow ND, Tomasi D, Wang GJ, Vaska P, Fowler JS, Telang F, Alexoff D, Logan J, Wong C. 2011. Effects of cell phone radiofrequency signal exposure on brain glucose metabolism. Journal of the American Medical Association 305 (8), in press.
  • Yale University researchers show that mice exposed to cell phone radio frequencies in utero exhibited impaired memory and hyperactivity.
Aldad TS, Gan G, Gao XB, Taylor HS. 2012. Fetal radiofrequency radiation exposure from 800-1900 mhz-rated cellular telephones affects neurodevelopment and behavior in mice. Sci Rep 2: 312.
  • Thirty minutes of cellphone use causes spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations in the brain.
Bin Lv, Zhiye Chen, Tongning Wu, Qing Shao, Duo Yan, Lin Ma, Ke Lu, Yi Xie. Clin Neurophysiol. 2013 Sep 4. Epub 2013 Sep 4. PMID: 24012322
  • Cellphone use may interfere with brain sleep patterns.
Arne Lowden, Torbjörn Akerstedt, Michael Ingre, Clairy Wiholm, Lena Hillert, Niels Kuster, Jens P Nilsson, Bengt Arnetz. Bioelectromagnetics. 2010 Sep 20. Epub 2010 Sep 20. PMID: 20857453
  • Exposure to electromagnetic cell phone frequencies damages fetal brains in study on rats.
Ji Jing, Zhang Yuhua, Yang Xiao-Qian, Jiang Rongping, Guo Dong-Mei, Cui Xi. Electromagn Biol Med. 2012 Jan 23. Epub 2012 Jan 23. PMID: 22268709
Why has the CDC– an institution with more than enough resources to thoroughly investigate such issues– failed to take into account the preponderance of evidence suggesting a link between cell phone use and health problems? And how can we explain the CDC’s quick retraction of their guidelines urging the public to be cautious with cell phones 18 months ago? Surely they wouldn’t have created such guidelines unless there was a scientific basis. Right?
The CDC and FCC: Kowtowing to the Wireless Industry
An investigative report published by the watchdog group Environmental Health Trust (EHT) digs deeper into the circumstances surrounding the CDC’s retraction of their guidelines on cell phone radiation exposure. The report, based on 500 pages of internal CDC documents released through a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), illuminates key information left of out the New York Times article and points to a cover-up by the CDC. Among the most startling revelations detailed is that immediately after publishing the new guidelines in June 2014 the CDC hired Kenneth Foster as a consultant to assist in the creation of future materials related to “non ionizing radiation matters”. (3) Foster has an established record of conducting research funded by the private wireless industry and has authored a number of studies with results that contradict the notion that children are more susceptible to cell phone radiation than adults.(4)
One such study published by Foster was recently scrutinized by EHT Senior Medical Advisor Robert Morris, MD PhD, and his peers in the journal IEEE. In the paper, the authors highlight the dubious and unscientific methodology used by Foster and his colleague in drawing their conclusions about children absorbing cell phone waves, pointing out “what appears to be a deliberate distortion of the science and a boldfaced effort to downplay potential risks to children using mobile devices.” (5) In addition, the CDC’s internal communications reveal that the agency considered including in their guidelines information about the potential hazards of cell phone towers located near schools, but chose to omit that information.(6)
By all indications, CDC officials aren’t immune to the influence of the cell phone industry, even when the health of Americans is at stake. The role of special interests in shaping government policy on wireless devices seems to extend beyond the CDC. An exposé by the Environmental Working Group (EWG) released in 2013 documented a disturbingly similar case of federal regulatory agencies buckling under pressure from private industry.
The controversy began after the FCC, presumably in response to research demonstrating the dangers of cell phone radio waves, updated their website in November of 2009 to recommend that people “buy a wireless device with lower SAR”, referring to cell phones which emit less radiation.(7) Upon Reviewing FCC documents secured through FOIA, the EWG team discovered that over the next nine months, three meetings were held between FCC staff and wireless companies such as Nokia, AT&T and Motorola as well as Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association (CTIA), which lobbies on behalf of cell phone giants including Verizon, Sprint, TMobile and Cricket. The topic of discussion at the meetings revolved around the issue of Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), a measurement of how much radiation the body absorbs from wireless devices. (8)
In September 2010, less than a year after the cautionary advice was first posted on the FCC website, the agency revised its language and adopted a dramatically different position on the issue. The revised text stated that:
  • Accordingly, some parties recommend taking measures to further reduce exposure to [radiofrequency] energy. The FCC does not endorse the need for these practices.
  • Some parties recommend that you consider the reported SAR value of wireless devices. However, comparing the SAR of different devices may be misleading. (9)
Once again it appears that our bureaucratic institutions prefer to submit to the whims of corporate lobbyists rather than protect citizens from scientifically-established health hazards. A closer examination of the FCC turns up further evidence of a revolving door between the organization and the telecommunications industry. A prime example of the conflicts of interest within the organization can be found in the current president and CEO of the aforementioned cell phone industry trade group CTIA, Meredith Attwell Baker. Baker served as a commissioner for the FCC from 2009-2011 and before that worked as the CTIA’s director of congressional affairs from 1998-2000. Remarkably, while acting as FCC commissioner in January 2011, Baker voted in favor of Comcast acquiring NBCUniversal, and left the agency just five months later to become Comcast-NBCUniversal’s senior vice president of government affairs.(10) Baker’s long history of hopping the fence between industry insider and government regulator raises serious questions about her loyalties.
Baker isn’t an isolated case. The current chairman heading the FCC, Tom Wheeler, previously worked as the president of the influential lobby group known as National Cable & Telecommunications Association (NCTA) and served as the CEO of CTIA for more than a decade. And in a stunning role reversal, former FCC chairman Michael Powell is now President and CEO of NCTA.
A Global Push for Cell Phone Safety
As this alarming lack of US government oversight of wireless devices progresses, we witness governments around the world taking action to reduce wireless radiation exposure in their populations. Currently, the governments of France and Belgium mandate cell phone packages clearly display SAR values. National guidelines in Israel, Austria, and Australia advise reducing exposure to WiFi devices among children. The UK National Health Service recommends keeping phone calls short and keeping the phone away from the body, noting “children are thought to be at higher risk of health implications” (11)
Despite this global rise in awareness about the dangers inherent in our wireless technology, as of January 2016, the FCC website continues to reflect a seemingly dangerous ignorance on the subject, stating that:
Some health and safety interest groups have interpreted certain reports to suggest that wireless device use may be linked to cancer and other illnesses, posing potentially greater risks for children than adults. While these assertions have gained increased public attention, currently no scientific evidence establishes a causal link between wireless device use and cancer or other illnesses. Those evaluating the potential risks of using wireless devices agree that more and longer-term studies should explore whether there is a better basis for RF safety standards than is currently used. (12)
A growing body of independent science shows that the issue of cell phone safety may have massive consequences on the health of our nation, especially our children. If we are to enact measures to protect against this dangerous radiation we must demand full accountability from the CDC and FCC. It is time that Americans stand up to the anti-science corporate profiteers running the show and rein in this invisible danger in our midst.
  4. Ibid
  5. Ibid
  6. Ibid
  8. Ibid
  9. Ibid

Friday, January 29, 2016

Tame the tangles with a desk-side data center

There are ways to keep it neat

Sponsored by
data center
Messy wiring closets can increase IT maintenance costs. Credit: Spiceworks
Picture this: You’re working in a branch office and the network goes down. You open up a closet door where the computer equipment is stored only to find a tower of boxes stacked precariously and a tangle of computer cables and wires coming at you.
This is a typical scenario in remote and branch offices, workplace settings collectively known as ROBOs. Organizations rarely staff these places with dedicated IT support staff, leaving it up the employees to troubleshoot, taking them away from the tasks they were hired to perform.
Remote offices also commonly have infrastructure that uses disparate, non-standard hardware, multiple systems management tools, lack of space to scale and poor security. While some organizations maintain tight controls to ensure that infrastructure and applications remain consistent across locations, most do not and IT ends up supporting a mishmash of hardware and software.
Poor standardization makes solving offsite problems difficult, time-consuming and expensive. About 75 percent of IT budgets are spent on infrastructure and personnel costs needed to support ongoing operations, according to ATKearney. The most efficient IT departments spend less, freeing up more funding for upgrades and strategic technology that facilitates expansion and greater competitiveness.

175 pounds of data center

The ideal solution is a so-called data center in a box, which combines servers, storage and networking into a single, easy-to-use system. That box must also be designed to fit seamlessly underneath or next to an employee’s desk and not require any special setup, power or cooling. Since IT is always looking to control costs, pricing is yet another consideration.
Dell has addressed this with its high-performance PowerEdge VRTX, which removes the challenges and complexity of managing IT remotely. PowerEdge VRTX provides up to four servers that Dell can customize with Intel Xeon E5-2600v2 processors. It’s virtualization-ready and designed to work with Microsoft Hyper-V or VMware vSphere. It is also easy to deploy, weighs about 175 pounds and stands 19 inches tall by 12 inches wide, so it can be located almost anywhere in the office.
It has simple built-in monitoring and management, including an integrated console with enterprise-class tools for onsite or remote management. There is almost no need to integrate cable servers to networking switches and then to external storage with PowerEdge VRTX. Everything is contained in a 5U tower or rackable chassis to deliver the redundancy and reliability required to meet the demands of today’s always-on environments.
As businesses look to reduce the complexity of IT and better serve their branch and remote offices, they need systems like PowerEdge VRTX that can be quickly deployed, managed with ease and prepared to scale with today’s business requirements.
Tags: Data Center,Technology

Thursday, January 28, 2016

JFK - We choose to go to the Moon, full length

JFK - We choose to go to the Moon, full length

National Security Agency (NSA) - Part 1.
Citadel of evil by Steven J. Smith

The NSA (national security agency) was created in 1952, is headquartered at Fort Meade Maryland, and administered by the United States Department of Defense (DoD).  Government generated disinformation portrays the NSA as strictly involved in the collection and analysis of foreign communications.  In other words, electronic surveillance of foreign countries.  Although specifically bared from domestic surveillance of American citizens by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978, the NSA has recently admitted to limited spying on American citizens.  If this were the limit of NSA transgressions, the essay you're about to read would not be necessary.  Sadly, the NSA is engaged in illegal activities that make electronic eavesdropping on American citizens seem almost trivial by comparison.

Over the years, there have been a number of newspaper articles and other media reports, claiming American intelligence agencies have tried to use individuals with psychic abilities to spy on other nations.  The most widely publicized being project Stargate.  In every instance, the intelligence agencies have claimed these efforts were a failure and terminated the project.

But consider for a moment...

How often does the CIA, NSA, or DIA openly admit to failure?  Especially in connection to some new espionage technique.  What better way to deflect public scrutiny away form some topic (or secret project), than to announce that after spending millions of dollars, no useful results were obtained.  The American government has a long history of using such misdirection ploys to hide its covert activities.  In point of fact, the American government has a very successful psychic espionage/warfare program.  It was initiated shortly after WWII, has been operational since the early 1950s, and is administered by the NSA.  The primary motivation for keeping this program so highly classified (secret), concerns the appalling nature of how these psychics are created, trained, and deployed.

The NSA is involved in some of the most heinous crimes and vicious acts of barbarism ever perpetrated on humanity.  Even the monstrous autocracies committed by WWII Nazi war criminals pale in comparison to the crimes of the NSA.  This document concerns it self with nothing less than the wholesale medical experimentation, torture and outright murder of American children, some less than six years old.  The rationale behind these despicable acts?  To create a secret slave army of government controlled super psychics, which at present, number in the tens of thousands.  The solders (both men and women) of this vast psychic army live and die at the whims of DNI (director of national intelligence) and NCA (national command authority).  Its Ironic that Nazi biologists and doctors involved in human experimentation, relocated to America in the aftermath of WWII (under Operation Paperclip), were the precursors responsible for this foul excursion into the darkest corners of evil and depravity.

Click Here to view Wikipedia article on NSA (opens in a new browser window).
Click Here to view Wikipedia article on Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (opens in a new browser window).
Click Here to view Wikipedia article on Project Stargate (opens in a new browser window).
Click Here to view Wikipedia article on Operation Paperclip (opens in a new browser window).
Click Here to view Wikipedia article on Nazi human medical experimentation (opens in a new browser window).

National security:
Why is the NSA engaged in such loathsome behavior?  Is the NSA protecting you and your loved ones from terrorists?  In a word, No...  Is the NSA defending truth, justice, and the American way?  Sorry, wrong again.

 In order to understand why, you must first understand what the term "national security" really means.  Many assume it means protecting the people and property belonging to the citizens of our beloved country.  Alas, nothing could be farther from the truth.  In legal terms, the word "national" (derived from the root word "nation"), and the word "country" are NOT interchangeable.  A country is a geographical area having well defined boundaries.  A nation is a political entity asserting ultimate authority over that geographical area.  So when a government official uses the term "national security", what he/she really means is the security of the entity that asserts authority over the geographic area we know as the USA.  In other words, the term "national security" means the security of the government, not the security of the people.  And the National Security Agency (NSA) is that part of the government tasked with keeping the government safe and secure.

But safe and secure from who?

Obviously, the people living within the geographical boundaries over which the government asserts its ultimate authority.  In other words, you & me...

The rest of this essay outlines in graphic detail how the NSA accomplishes its government mandated mission.

Psychic abilities:
From Cassandra of Troy, and the Pythia (prophet) of Delphi in ancient times, to the writings of Nostradamus and the more contemporary works of Edger Cayce.  Psychics and their abilities form a common thread, starting at the very foundations of history, and continuing to the present.  Furthermore, psychic individuals are found in all cultural groups.  From Africa to Scandinavia, from China to the American Indians.  It seems no group or culture is without examples of people who manifest psychic abilities.  Yet despite all of the historical evidence, and obvious impact on the events surrounding their lives, psychics and their abilities remain at best an elusive mirage, possessing an almost chimerical quality.

Clearly, from the perspective of evolution, psychic ability would seem to be a very pro-survival trait.  For example, knowing there's a man eating tiger waiting in ambush, when traversing grass lands of the Serengeti, or knowing where to find buffalo on the vast American plains, will definitely improve an individuals chance for survival.  So why are there so few examples of truly gifted psychics?  The answer involves the love/hate relationship implicit in psychic abilities.  Would you really want to work with someone who knew your innermost secrets?  Do you want a neighbor who could see exactly what you're doing in your bedroom, or in your bathroom, or even in your dreams?  How would you feel about somebody who could influence what you're thinking without saying a word, or even being in the same room with you.  Would you feel safe around that individual?

But it gets worse.

What chance do you have for job promotion, when your psychic co-worker can covertly influence the boss, or see into the future and knows just what moves the company should make to thrive and prosper?  And what if that psychic individual could manifest some of the more exotic abilities?  Abilities such as telekinesis (moving objects with the mind), pyrokinesis (ability to manipulate fire), or even manifesting a double (bilocation) of him/her self (or worse, your wife/husband).  If you're anything near normal, then about now the hairs on the back of your neck are starting to tingle.  You're also beginning to wonder if its such a good idea to let that person live, let alone roam free your neighborhood.  In religious terms, everybody wants Jesus to manifest miracles and save them from evil, but if the gentleman from Nazareth were to show up tomorrow, odds are real good he'd be nailed to another cross (or shot in the head, etc.) within a few weeks.  Looked at another way, a certain amount of psychic ability (such as normal intuition) is accepted by society.  But anyone displaying exceptional abilities will be quickly ostracized, if not outright murdered.  An in-depth review of the historical record shows that many of those who possessed exceptional psychic abilities, met with an untimely and/or unnatural death.

Perhaps you begin to appreciate the dilemma American government officials faced, when shortly after WWII it became apparent, that by employing modern medical techniques it was now possible to routinely create individuals with prodigious psychic powers and abilities.  Obviously these individuals would be useful.  But how would the government control them?

A prison for the mind:
How do you control a person who is able to walk through solid walls, or kill with a single glance?  A person who can see the future, and knows what you're about to say or do.  A person who can make you eat broken glass and enjoy the experience, or make you point a gun at your own head and pull the trigger.  A person who can influence the weather, start fires by mere thought (pyrokinesis), or blackout an entire city by touching an ordinary power pole (electrokinesis).  There can be little doubt that from a political, military or espionage perspective, such a person is both incredibly valuable AND unbelievably dangerous.  Can you imagine an American general, his mouth watering at the prospect of commanding an army of psychic killers, AND his knees shaking when he considers what would happen if that army ever rebelled?  Or a high ranking intelligence official, a gleam in his eye as he contemplates knowing his enemies deepest secrets, AND his palms sweating when he considers that a telepathic spy can send thoughts, just as easily as he or she receives them.

To what lengths would a military general or government official go, in order to guarantee absolute control over a psychic solder, assassin, or spy?  And more importantly, how will that absolute control be achieved?

The answer is both very simple and chillingly gruesome.

You turn the mind of the psychic into a prison, and you make him/her both the prison guard, and the prisoner.  The first step is accomplished through the use of extreme physical and psychological torture.  This causes massive dissociation, thereby splitting the mind into multiple personas (personalities).  Psychoactive drugs are also administered during this step to heighten mental impact of the pain, thereby accelerating the process of mental splitting.  Next you train different personas to perform different tasks.  Then, you use ECT electro-convulsive-therapy (also known as electroshock treatment) to "lock in" the personas, and destroy any trace of recollection in the dominate personality of the now split off personas.  Finally, you do all of this to the psychic while he or she is still a child (under the age of 10).  At this point, you have created the perfect psychic warrior.  Capable of committing any act, no matter how vile or self destructive, all under the absolute control of his or her handlers.  However, the physical injury, emotional scars, mental confusion, and spiritual rape inflicted upon the hapless psychic child by this inhuman brutality, will last a lifetime...

If you feel revulsion at what I've just described, you're far from alone.

The next question that must be answered is where do you find individuals with the prerequisite expertise to perform such a detailed and thorough job of shattering, and rebuilding a human mind?  The obvious answer is the government intelligence agencies.  These organizations employ some of the best psychiatrists, psychologists and behavioral scientists to be found anywhere in the world.  They're also consummate experts at interrogation and psychological warfare techniques.  Precisely the skill set required for building a psychic version of the Manchurian candidate.  But of course, mercilessly torturing innocent children goes well beyond the constitutional boundaries of acceptable government behavior, not to mention violating local, state, federal, and international law.  The solution?  Use a secret presidential executive order (memorandum) to create a new intelligence agency that operates outside statutory law, congressional oversight, or constitutional limits.  In this way, the NSA was created by president Harry S. Truman in June of 1952, and for the first few years of its existence, remained so secret that even its name was classified.  A very odd beginning for an agency supposedly tasked with the mundane job of intercepting foreign communications, but the perfect disguise for a collection of amoral medical professionals and sadistic military thugs intent on turning innocent children into psychic robots to serve the malevolent interests of a government run amok

Click Here to view Wikipedia article on Dissociate Identity Disorder (aka multiple personality disorder) (opens in a new browser window).

For those who wish a more detailed description of the process used in creating psychic slaves, see: National Security Agency - Part 2, A prison for the mind.

The rise of psychotronics:
Definition - Psychotronics:  The study of the interaction between matter, energy and the mind, especially the supposed relationship in Para-psychological effects.

Even with the brainwashing techniques described above (1.1.2), deploying and controlling thousands of psychic slaves is still a rather daunting task.  The problem breaks down into three major areas of concern.

  1. Security.  There is always the possibility that a psychic might get caught.  Or worse, might go rogue and escape his/her handlers.
  2. Targeting.  Somehow the psychic must be introduced to, or made aware of and familiar with, his/her intended target.  A dificult task if the target is a foreign head of state or high ranking military officer.
  3. Psychic strength or ability.  Despite the use of intrauterine and neonatal hormone treatments (3.2.2), genetic variability still plays a large role in eventual psychic ability exhibited by the child.  While certain psychoactive drugs could be used to boost psychic abilities, these also exacerbate problems 1 & 2 (above).
By the late 1950s (6-8 years into the secret NSA program), these three problem areas were starting to limit further expansion of what was otherwise proving to be, a very valuable adjunct to the more conventional techniques of political propaganda (population control), espionage, and assassination.

A solution was sought, and eventually found.  By using a combination of microwave radiation, modulated with EEG (Electroencephalogram) brain waves of the psychic, and aimed at the desired individual/location, it was no longer necessary for the assassin/spy/agent provocateur to be anywhere near his/her intended target.  Furthermore, the telecommunications industry could be covertly enlisted to transport the modulated microwave signal to any remote location desired.

What a delicious irony!

The NSA, an agency ostensibly tasked with intercepting foreign communications, is in fact, using the world wide telecommunications network to piggyback the brain waves of its psychic army...

Where first generation NSA psychics had to be deployed in the field.  Now they could be safely cloistered in purpose built facilities, with targeting accomplished by simply entering the latitude and longitude coordinates into a local console tied to the psychotronics network.  Furthermore, even psychics with weaker innate abilities could be used since the psychotronics network would amplify or boost their EEG brain waves to any desired level.  Psychotronics also allowed psychoactive drugs to be administered via IV (intravenous) drip.  This has several very beneficial advantages.  First it allows psychic ability to be "fine tuned" to the mission profile.  Second, the use of psychoactive drugs to boost abilities means that weaker psychics can be employed, thereby lowering the risk, should a psychic turn against his/her handlers.  Lastly, a (weaker) psychic that does manage to escape his or her handlers will be far less dangerous to apprehend (once the psychoactive drugs wear off).  In summary, the use of psychotronics solved all three problem areas listed above, and facilitated continued expansion of the psychic warfare program.

Another interesting aspect of Psychotronics concerns what can be influenced through a Psychotronics channel.  At the present state of technology, only living things (plants, animals, humans, etc.) can be influenced through a Psychotronics channel.  Influencing inanimate matter (telekinesis, pyrokinesis, electrokinesis, etc.) still requires the psychic to be located within a few miles of the intended target.

As a side note, Harold Puthoff (National Security Agency 1960-1963), was one of the more notable contributors to the field of psychotronics, see Puthoff H & Targ R, "A perceptual channel for information transfer over kilometer distances: Historical perspective and recent research", Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol 64, No 3, pp 329-354, March 1976.  However, it is the authors opinion that some of this IEEE paper and his 1970s SRI research were disinformation intended to draw attention away from his earlier work at the NSA.

Click Here to view Wikipedia article on SRI research into Clairvoyance and ESP (opens in a new browser window).
Click Here to view Wikipedia article on Harold Puthoff (opens in a new browser window).

For more information on the specific application and targeting of modulated microwaves to influence mental processes, see authors companion paper Remote Mind Control.

The Black Hole:
Its official name is classified, but those who work (and live) there simply call it "The Black Hole".  Located within the sprawling 100 square mile confines of Marine Base Quantico, The Black Hole complex consists of a multi-story black glass building (reminiscent of NSA head quarters building at Fort Mead, MD.), several separate underground dormitories, capable of accommodating several thousand psychics (plus their chaperones), and a number of above ground support structures, including barracks for a Marine security contingent, several dormitories for psychic handlers, a multi-bed infirmary, and most surprisingly, an onsite crematorium.  The last is necessary because even with the extreme security measures taken to ensure absolute control over the psychics, there are still a significant number of, shall we call them "accidents" (1.1.2).  It seems The Black Hole is deserving of its name, since many who go in, never come out...

The black glass building roof has a multitude of large satellite dishes and oversized cooling units (psychotronics consumes lots of bandwidth and generates a large amount of heat, see section 1.1.3).  Inside the building, the above ground floors include office space for clerical employees, psychic handlers, and managerial personnel.  The floors are covered in ceramic tile rather than carpet, since its less trouble to clean after a psychic "accident".  The multiple underground floors house the psychotronics (computers & electronics) equipment and ops rooms.  There are underground hallways that connect the ops areas to the separate psychic dormitories.

The psychic dormitories include a central kitchen with walk-in freezers, coolers, and dry goods storage area, all connected to the surface by freight elevators that also serve as the access points for marine security teams when there's an "incident" in one of the dormitories.  There is no dining room, the psychics are confined to their individual quarters, except when they're involved in a mission.  Below the kitchen are several levels of psychic dormitories, stacked one on top of another, all tied together with elevators that require a magnetic stripe card and access code to operate.  No elevator traverses more than one level.  Each dormitory level consists of a long central hallway, with branch corridors leading to the dormitory units.  Each dormitory unit consists of several floors of quarters with a live in "chaperone" on each floor.  There are security control doors on each psychic living quarters, and on the corridor leading to the main hallway.  Each of these doors requires a magnetic stripe card and access code to operate.  Each live in chaperone quarters has a small panel with door status indicator lights, and emergency call button to summon an armed Marine security team in case of an "accident".  If a Marine security team is summoned, they will shoot to kill, any psychic found out of their quarters, any chaperone who is acting strangely, and even other security team members who start acting strange, or fail to follow orders, or who fail to precisely follow the predetermined procedures.  Security within the psychic dormitories is a VERY serious matter...

Each psychic quarters consists of a living room, bed room, bath room with shower, and a kitchenette.  The living room has an access controlled TV.  The TV is not used for entertainment.  Rather it is used to condition the psychic with visual media, expressly selected for his or her specialty.  For instance a psychic specializing in influencing Russian emigrants or embassy personnel will only watch shows in Russian language.  Conversely, a psychic assassin will be shown movies involving murder.  And a psychic who specializes in inducing their victims to commit acts of pedophilia, will be shown pornographic movies involving underage children.  There is no behavior so vile, no crime so heinous, no deed so monstrous, that the NSA doesn't already have a psychic warrior trained, and ready to induce some victim into performing the act.

Some psychics are so dangerous that an entire dormitory unit is used to house a single individual.

Click Here to view Google map of Marine Base Quantico (opens in a new browser window).

Along with The Black Hole, there is another major contingent of psychics housed in underground dormitories at NSA headquarters in Fort Meade Maryland.  There are also smaller facilities (6 to 12 psychics) located on the outskirts of ALL major American cities, important military bases, and many political hot spots (northern Idaho for example).  These smaller facilities are primarily used when a quick response is needed, and as a general rule, house less dangerous psychics (mind readers, thought/emotion changers, dream hijackers, etc.).  Many of the smaller facilities use a common building plan, consisting of a 2 or 3 story building masquerading as a commercial business.  The first floor is all office space, and acts as a ruse to hide the activities taking place on the second and third floors.  The three story version (12 psychics) will have a kitchen, multiple ops rooms, and dining/recreation area on the second floor.  The third floor consists of individual living quarters for the psychics and chaperones.  The two story version (6 psychics) combines the living quarters, ops rooms, kitchen, dining/recreation area into a single upper floor.  All smaller facilities have 2 or 3 oversized satellite dishes on the roof, generally mounted in such a way as to hide them from ground level observation.  The dishes are aimed south at the geo-synchronous satellite belt, and serve as the Psychotronics link.

Dramatis personae:
Its time to meet the people who make up a typical American psychic ops team.

The Psychic:  This individual is at the core of the team.  Every one else on the team is there to support the psychic.  Some teams include more than one psychic.  For instance, a psychic that is skilled at causing pain but unable to read minds, might be teamed up with another psychic who is skilled at reading minds but unable to do anything else.  Another useful team consists of one psychic who is able to kill a target, and one (or more) psychic(s ) with defensive skills (able to shield the attacker from pain).  These teams are used to attack targets that are protected by other psychics.

The Mission Coordinator:  Always male, and sometimes referred to as "The Suit" because of his clothing.  This person is the team leader.  He's receives mission orders from his superiors, organizes the mission, and selects the appropriate psychic(s) to carry out the operation.  He also does the post mission paperwork, and reports mission results back to his superiors.  Like the psychics, the suit has also undergone trauma based programming (3.2.1a).  He carries a concealed hand gun (with silencer), and is programmed (hard wired) to kill the psychic and then himself, if he feels any intrusion into his mind.  For security reasons, psychics are trained never to look at the face of the suit.

The Biomedical Technician:  Also known as the "Bio Tech".  This team member sits next to, and monitors the psychic warrior.  The bio tech also administers the psychoactive drugs used to boost the psychic's mental abilities.  Many Bio Techs flunked out of medical school or served as field medics in the Army.

The Communications Technician:  Also known as the "Comm. Tech".  This individual is responsible for monitoring the psychotronics console (1.1.3), making sure the connection between psychic and target is accurate and stable.  A sizeable number of Comm. Techs are convicted computer hackers.

While the psychics and suits live on-site, techs are civilian contractors and commute to work.

A day in the life:
Following a psychic through a typical day, will prove useful in understanding what its like to be one of America's new breed of front line solders.  But before we start, the reader should understand The Black Hole operates on a 24/7 basis.  So the terms "morning", "afternoon", or "night" are relative, and bear no relation to the actual time in Quantico.  NSA psychics live in an underground maze of rooms, elevators, and hallways (1.2.1), never seeing the light of day.

Morning starts with a visit from the chaperon, who administers a stimulant drug injection to counteract the sedative, administered by injection just before bedtime, the night before.  The psychic is then left to shower use the toilet and generally wake up, while the chaperone administers stimulants to his/her other charges.  Next comes breakfast, delivered by electric golf cart from the central kitchen, and distributed by the chaperone to each of the psychics, who eat alone in their quarters.  The food is very good.  It must have high nutritional value to help mitigate physiological damage caused by the steady cocktail of drugs given to the psychics on a daily basis.  Along with breakfast are several pills, taken to counteract the long term liver and kidney damage resulting from the metabolic breakdown products of psychoactive drugs.

Generally, the morning is spent watching TV programs, specifically targeted at each psychic's special abilities (1.2.1).  Occasionally, as a special treat, they are allowed to watch a movie.  Often, it's a Disney animated movie.  Remember, these psychics have the mind of a child, even though they are full grown adults.  They were never allowed to mature mentally, since that would just make them more dangerous and harder to handle.  Some, depending on how their abilities are used, can't even read.  None of them can write or do simple math.  As another example, most of the psychic assassins have no idea what death is, and no knowledge whatsoever of right and wrong.  They just do as they're told...

At noon they are given lunch by the chaperone, again with more pills.  This time to help prepare them for their afternoon mission.  Many of these pills are designed to act as metabolic buffers against deleterious physical side effects of the strong psychoactive drugs employed during their mission.  Depending on the nature and/or duration of the mission, lunch will be their last meal of the day, since after the mission, the psychic may not be able to eat any solid food without vomiting for the next 6 to 12 hours.

When its time, the chaperone hands the psychic over to The Suit (1.2.2), who walks with him/her to a nearby briefing room.  The suit starts by giving the psychic a candy bar, laced with yet more drugs.  These drugs are designed to enhance memory and engender a friendly rapport with the suit, thereby making it less likely the psychic will turn against him during the mission.  Next, the suit shows the psychic photographs of the target, and explains the mission details.  If the psychic is going to speak into the targets mind, the suit has the psychic memorize the exact phrases to be used.  Once the suit is satisfied the psychic understands the mission, they proceed to an ops room, where the actual mission will be carried out.  In the ops room, the psychic is seated in a reclining padded chair, and the suit loads targeting coordinates into the psychotronics console (1.1.3).

After the psychotronics console indicates proper targeting has been achieved, the suit calls in the other team members (comm. tech & bio tech, see 1.2.2).  The bio tech straps the psychic into the chair, attaches the EEG head band and heart monitor wires, inserts an IV needle into the psychic's arm, and starts an IV drip.  Next the bio tech uses a syringe to push the first dose of psychoactive drugs into the IV line, thereby boosting the psychic into the heightened mental state required to complete his/her mission.  Meanwhile, the comm. tech is monitoring both the target's heart beat and psychic's heart beat.  When these are synchronized, the psychic is in deep mental contact with the target, and the mission begins.  As the mission proceeds, the suit issues commands to the psychic and technicians to modify mission parameters as required to complete a successful operation.

Once the mission is completed, the comm. tech severs the psychotronics connection, and the bio tech injects a psychoactive antidote into the IV drip line, thereby bringing the psychic back to some semblance of a normal mind state.  Next, the biomedical technician removes the EEG head band and heart monitor wires, un-straps the psychic.  Finally, when the psychic is able to walk, the suit takes him/her back to the dormitory and hands them over to the chaperone.  At this point, it's the chaperone's responsibility to stabilize the psychic with still more drugs, feed them if they are able to eat, and then put them to sleep with an injection of sedatives.

After being mercilessly tortured as a small children (1.1.2), then ruthlessly trained to use their abilities in service of the NSA, the average psychic starts work in The Black Hole at age 17.  By age 30, few are left alive...

Mission profiles:
In order to fully appreciate what the NSA is doing to the world in general, and America in particular, it will prove useful to examine some typical psychic mission profiles.  While far from a complete list, they are representative of the myriad ways in which the NSA employs its army of psychic slaves on an unsuspecting public.

1.2.4a: Market Manipulation
What if you could use psychics to secretly influence key decision makers at major mutual funds, pension funds, and hedge funds.  In other words, what if you knew which way the financial markets were going to move, because you were the one making them move that way.  This is precisely what the NSA does on a daily basis.  The goal?  To systematically strip the small investor of his/her wealth, and transfer that money to government employee pension funds and those large corporate asset pools that are under covert government control.  For large American financial institutions, the choice is very simple.  Play along or go broke...

Is it any wonder that (federal) government budgets continue to rise every year, while American families make do with less?

1.2.4b: Marital Infidelity & Pedophilia
What if you could have the woman of your dreams?  An easy wish to fulfill if a psychic implanted the dream, and the NSA already has your "specified dream girl" in their employ (3.2.1b).  What if you could turn almost anyone into a pedophile?  The NSA has psychics that can do just that in a remarkably short period of time.  And of course you'll need trained children (both male and female) ready to satisfy the newly created pedophile's every desire (another NSA specialty).  Can you imagine the possibilities for blackmail?

This is precisely how many politicians and high ranking corporate officers are controlled.

1.2.4c: Assassination by Accident and Natural Causes
What if you were driving home late one night and saw a big rock in the middle of the road, so you swerved to miss it.  However...  You didn't see the 150 foot vertical drop off until your car plunged over the lip.  Or maybe you're asleep one night, when you hear a noise that startles you awake.  There at the hallway door, you see an intruder with a knife in his hand.  So you grab the gun you keep in the night stand next to the bed, and shoot the intruder.  As the smoke clears and the ringing in your ears subsides, you realize with growing horror you've just shot your husband, who was returning to bed after going to the bathroom.

Accidental death, courtesy of telepathic projection by NSA psychics.

Is death by heart attack, burst aneurysm, of cerebral hemorrhage a "natural cause"?  Not if NSA psychics influence your heart rate, blood pressure, or vascular dilatation...

1.2.4d: Tainted food supplies and E. coli outbreaks
Natural food sources such as meats and vegetables, are not entirely free of bacterial contamination.  Rather, bacterial contamination of food is minimized through a combination of techniques, including proper washing, handling, and packaging to preclude any cross contamination from other bacterial sources, and refrigeration to inhibit further growth of native bacteria already present within the food.  In this manner, bacterial contamination levels in foods are maintained at sufficiently low levels, as to pose a minimal risk to healthy individuals.

Suppose a team of psychics, adept at pyrokinesis (ability to manipulate heat and fire) used their ability to raise the temperature within a batch of processed meat (such as hamburger), thereby allowing the native bacteria to resume growing (and dividing) for a period of several days...

In this way, NSA controlled psychics are able to create wide spread outbreaks of food born illness, on command, and with complete impunity

1.2.4e: Manipulating the foreign policy of other nations
There can be little doubt that American military leadership would like nothing better, than a full scale invasion of Iran.  However, they need a pretext (excuse) to justify their actions.  At present, the continued enrichment of uranium, supposedly for use in civilian nuclear power generation, is not sufficient provocation to justify a military invasion of Iran.

Querying a (former) government psychic, revealed the following tidbit of information.

Q.  Where are your parents?
A.  They died in auto accident.  Then I went to live with my grandmother, but she also died.

Q. What happened next?
A.  A lady took me and my sister Moni (short for Monica) to a place where men hurt us real bad.

Q.  What happened to Moni?
A.  They hurt her too much and she died.   I miss her a lot.

Q.  What did they train you to do?
A.  Influence other people with my mind, and speak different languages.

Q.  What languages do you speak?
A.  Russian, Chinese, Japanese, French, Spanish, and Persian.

Q.  What sort of influencing did you do in Persian language?
A.  Hate America.  Hate Jews.  Hate Saudi Arabia.  Blame Saudi Arabia.

No doubt, when the sneak attack (on American military forces) finally happens, the President will label it as another:

"Day That Will Live in Infamy!"...

The American government, ostensibly engaged protecting the lives and property of American citizens, is simultaneously (and covertly) stripping those very same citizens of their wealth, security, and freedom.  To be blunt, the American government is using NSA controlled psychics in a secret war against its own citizenry.  The ultimate goal being to turn every single man, woman, and child living in America, into a government controlled slave laborer.  It has taken 50+ years, but the transformation of America from a bastion of freedom and democracy, into a vast slave labor camp spanning an entire continent, is almost complete.  Slavery does not require guards with guns, or cells with bars, or even awareness of enslavement.  If you can build a prison for the mind...

In part two, we shall take an in depth look at how that prison was constructed.

ALL information contained herein is derived from public sources, widely accepted scientific principles, remote viewing, and/or deprogramming sessions of (former) government trained psychics.  The author has NO written or verbal agreement with ANY governmental agency forbidding disclosure of the information contained herein.  In disclosing this information, the author is exercising his right to free speech as a private citizen of the United States of America.

National Security Agency (NSA) - Part 1
National Security Agency (NSA) - Part 2. A prison for the mind by Steven J. Smith
National Security Agency (NSA) - Part 3. Collateral damage by Steven J. Smith

The Magic of Lost Cities        

The Magic of Lost Cities

Scott Corrales's picture
By Scott Corrales
"When will we discover Wasukanni, capital of the Mitanni empire? When will we excavate Kussara, the erstwhile seat of Anittas, first king of the Hittites? Who is going to discover the city of Nessa, entombed in the soil of eastern Anatolia, or identify the location of Arzawa?"
--- Ivar Lissner, "The Living Past" (1962)
The notion of lost cities is very appealing to the Western mind. It conjures up images of ancient ruins covered in lianas and jungle vegetation, concealing treasures forgotten by man or sometimes the opposite--fully functioning cultures of either warlike or benign people voluntarily or accidentally cut off from the flow of our civilization, representing a source of danger and opportunity to the adventurer or the explorer. Of course, lost cities in real life have more in common with archaeological finds like Angor Wat, Ebla, or forgotten Troy itself than with the ones that will occupy us here.
As distances shrank during the 19th century and intrepid explorers pushed back the frontiers of the unknown, the lost city and its treasures had to be moved farther still. Authors of fiction, such as Jules Verne, chose to keep his plots safe by relocating his lost cities beneath the Earth's surface in his classic Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864). His British contemporary, H.Rider Haggard, sent his memorable protagonist Allan Quartermain into the heart of unexplored Africa to find King Solomon's Mines (1885). Both of these novelistic endeavors were probably inspired to a certain extent by the writings of hollow-earth enthusiast John Cleves Symmes, whose Symzonia (1820) described a highly advanced technological society beneath the ice and snow of the Antarctic.
But while science fact and science fiction each endeavored to give us different kinds of lost city (the former less glamorous than the latter), the esoteric tradition and cryptoarchaeology held their own variety of forbidden kingdoms, accessible only to initiates or to those unlucky enough to come across them.
The Quest for Iarchas
Apollonius of Tyana was a philosopher and mathematician who lived in the year 17 of the Common Era. and a keen follower of the Pythagorean tradition. A contemporary of Jesus, the Cappadocian philosopher was also considered to have been divine and endowed with supernatural powers. Temples were built throughout the Roman Empire after his death or disappearance and even coins bearing Apollonius' image were minted by some ancient cities of the Mediterranean.
This intriguing character is perhaps most famous for his wanderings throughout the Mediterranean countries, Ethiopia, Assyria and India. He returned to the Roman Empire after his travels and displayed some of his paranormal abilities, particularly after settling in Ephesus (in modern Turkey) to open his school. The city was being then being ravaged by the plague,and the Pythagorean philosopher commanded that a certain beggar be stoned to death, as it was really a devil in human guise. The beggar, tradition tells us, was literally covered by a mound of stones thrown by the angry Ephesians. When efforts were made to drag the beggar's corpse from under the rocks, nothing at all was found, and the plague ended immediately.
But it was Apollonius of Tyana's quest for the "City of the Gods" during his travels through the Himalayas that are of interest to us. In the company of his apprentice, Damis, he reached the mysterious city of Iarchas. Historians have tried to identify it with one of the many Greek cities founded in the Punjab by Alexander the Great, but without any avail. The philosopher himself has this to say about it: "I have seen men who are living on Earth but are not of this Earth, defended everywhere yet defenseless, and having nothing beyond what we ourselves possess."
The story tells us that as Apollonius and Damis approached their destination, strange things occured. The road behind them appeared to vanish and the landscape around them became surreal. They were led to the ruler of the city (in certain versions also identified as Iarchas) and told that they had reached the realm "of men who knew everything" and were shown a variety of wonders, such as a working model of the solar system built under the sapphire dome of a temple, as well as impressive feats of levitation. Master and apprentice were invited to dine with Iarchas' eponymous ruler, and were served by four automatons; night was made as bright as day through the use of "luminous stones" and Apollonius was surprised by what he described as "living wheels" which transported messages from the gods. Being a geometrist, it is understandable that this most remarkable personage was fascinated by the fact that Iarchas was "on Earth, yet at the same time, outside it."
Chroniclers tell us that Apolonius acquired considerable powers after his sojourn in the "City of the Gods", most notable among them the ability to "draw fire from the ether" and the gift of teleportation, which he used successfuly when brought before the Emperor Domitian under charges of sorcery. Present at the trial were witnesses to his "miracles" under the reign of Nero, and who were willing to testify to his powers. The philosopher reportedly looked at the emperor and said: "You may hold my body captive by not my spirit, and let me add, not even my body!" with which he disappeared in a brilliant flash of light, made all the brighter by the fact that the paranoid Domitian had ordered the walls of his palace polished to mirror brightness to foil any assasination attempts.
Curiously, all sources agree about one thing: on the 16th of September of the year 96 C.E., while Apollonius lectured in the gardens of Ephesus, he suddenly fell silent and his face became clouded with unspeakable anger, exclaiming: "Strike the tyrant! strike him!" Regaining his composure, he turned to the puzzled assembly and said, "Be of good cheer, people of Ephesus. The tyrant has been murdered this very day in Rome."
The life of this remarkable character has been interpreted in various ways: to the Theosophists, particularly George R. Stow, who wrote a biography of Apollonius, he is an "ascended master" and one of the many guises of the ubiquitous Count of St. Germain; Jacques Bergier posited that Apollonius had been in contact with extraterrestrials; still others believe that this first century thaumaturge was an extraordinary human who visited a strange repository of hidden wisdom, possibly located in another dimension within our own world.
The Forgotten Capital of Hsiung-Nu
While mysterious Iarchas may indeed have existed "beyond the circles of the world" (to borrow that evocative phrase from J.R.R. Tolkien), one could venture the guess that many would-be adepts have lost their lives searching for it. Yet there are other lost cities in Central Asia which are endowed with an equally potent aura of mystery.
Central Asia, stretching from the Tarim Basin to the enigmatic Gobi Desert, is considered by many--notably historians Roy Chapman Andrews and Henry Fairfield Osborne--as the original birthplace of mankind. During his exploration of this region of mystery, Andrews found prehistoric remains of trees, foliage, and freshwater crustaceans, indicating that the area was once rich in water and vegetation. A six foot, six inch tall human skeleton was also unearthed and identified as "proto-Mongolian".
Until not very long ago, schoolchildren studying early European history were told that Attila and his Huns, whose activities contributed greatly to destroying the Roman world, were known to the Chinese as the western, northern and southern Hsiung-Nu; the Avars, another eastern horde that spread terror throughout the Middle Ages, were likewise identified with the Juan-Juan. But it may have turned out that our instructors were wrong, after all.
Controversial author Peter Kolosimo, who can rightfully lay claim to being the "Italian Von Daniken", caused a stir among cryptoarchaeology buffs and academics alike with his book Timeless Earth (1968). The Hsiung-Nu, this author tells us, were not only not the bow-legged, horse-riding Huns, but rather a sophisticated, star-worshipping culture whose capital city was nestled in the desolate reaches of the Tarim Basin (not far from the modern Chinese nuclear test range at Lop Nor). Of Middle Eastern rather than Asiatic origin, this mysterious civilization appeared to share some kinship with the Mitanni or other Mesopotamian cultures. Most history texts have few words to spare on this forgotten race. One of them succinctly states: "according to some researchers, the Huns were descended from the Hsiung-Nu, a Siberian peoples who had settled between Lake Balkhash and Mongolia in the 4th century B.C.E." Maps show the extension of this realm as going as far as the Korean border, although the same map shows the "residence of the Hsiung-Nu chief" as being on the banks of the Ongin River in Mongolia. In 209 B.C.E., Mao-tun became Emperor of the Hsiung-Nu and forced China to pay tribute to his kingdom.
According to Kolosimo, Father Duparc, a French explorer, reached the ruins of the Hsiung-Nu "capital" in 1725, finding a succession of monoliths which had apparently been part of a place of worship. Other discoveries included a three-tiered pyramid and a royal palace "with thrones surmounted by images of the sun and moon". Successive expeditions found jewels, weapons and accoutrements, but none of Duparc's findings, as the ruins had apparently been covered by sandstorms. A Soviet team reached the area in 1952 and reportedly found the tip of a monolith resembling structures found in Africa's mysterious Zimbabwe. The author goes on to say that Tibetan monks befriended the Soviet scientists and showed them documentation describing the past glory of the nameless Hsiung-Nu city. Kolosimo tells us that a "fiery cataclysm" was apparently to blame for the loss of this highly advanced civilization and the descent into barbarism of its survivors.
Even more tantalizing are the indications that this lost city may have been the source of the paranormal/psychic abilities that Tibetan monks are endowed with, such as thought-transmission and the ability to "communicate with other planets".
But the association between the historic Hsiung-Nu and these more mysterious namesakes indicate that the denomination must be largely coincidental. The highly advanced inhabitants of the ruined city of the Tarim Basin probably had more in common with the mysterious mummified bodies of visibly caucasoid ancients discovered in 1997 and tentatively identified with the "Tocharians" of the ancient chronicles. Perhaps the intense search for oil presently underway in the Takla Makan desert may unearth some clues as to this truly forgotten civilization and its city: one potential opportunity lies in the use of space-based, remote sensing devices such as the SIR-CX-SAR deployed on the space shuttle Discover in 1994 to reveal manmade structures along the Silk Road in the Takla Makan desert. This amazing radar system can find objects buried up to under 3 meters in the sand. Similar advances were employed to find the lost city of Ubar in the Hadramaut (Yemen/Oman).
A Citadel for Prester John?
The same game of historical "maybe/maybe not" that affects the Hsiung-Nu city in the desert applies to Prester John.
Documented sources throughout the middle ages inform us of the repeated visits to the Pope and other European monarchs of envoys claiming to be from the "kingdom of Prester John", bearing gifts and messages from this mighty ruler.
Around 1165 C.E., a letter was recieved at the court of the Byzantine Emperor, Manuel Comnenus, from a distant prince known only as Prester John, who claimed to recieve "the tribute of 72 kings" and was "a devout Christian and everywhere proect the Christians of Our empire." In the war-torn Crusader era, with the christian kingdoms of the levant slowly being pushed into the sea by the Muslim tide, news of a powerful ally was welcome indeed. Attempts at placing the location of his kingdom were many: some placed Prester John beyond India; others in the Caucasus; the mapmakers who placed a figure of a scepter-wielding monarch in what is modern Ethiopia won out, and the "kingdom of Prester John" became a magical realm straight out of the chansons de geste of the period, high in the mountains at the birthplace of the Nile.
After the travels of Marco Polo proved beyond a doubt that the only powerful monarch beyond India was the Great Khan, efforts at finding Prester John in Africa began in earnest. In 1520, the Portuguese sent a delegation to Ethiopia in the hope of forming an allegiance with this immortal prince against Arab merchants who proved a hindrance to the Portuguese spice trade. Instead, they ran into the King of Ethiopia, who had never heard of Prester John.
However, while the "Prester John" craze may have been a medieval hoax, every hoax has a germ of truth to it. Could there have been a Coptic or Nestorian bishop named John who ruled a small kingdom, inflated beyond belief to frighten his enemies or merely to salve his insecurities?
This line of speculation might be reinforced somewhat by an article in World Explorer Magazine (Vol.1 No.4) entitled "The Mysterious Egyptian Castle-Fortress" and penned by J.J. Snyder. The author alleges that while flying a large cropduster plane to the Sudan from Aswan in Egypt he flew over a "black, fortress-like castle" which surmounted a small hill, and had "twin battlements facing southward" in the most desolate region of the Nubian Desert, on the Egyptian/Sudanese border. While none of his fellow crop-dusting pilots could confirm the sighting, Snyder felt the structure "was vacant...and could have been deserted for hundreds of years or longer."
A trick of the landscape? Maybe. But what if Prester John had been less of a king and more a cult figure like the "Old Man of the Mountain" who ruled the Order of Assassins? Could the black castle seen by Snyder have been the "lost" citadel of this medieval ruler? Unlikely, but an enchanting possibility.
Lost Cities--Physical and Metaphysical
When we sever ties with history and even with folklore, we drift along the powerful currents of speculation that draw us closer to mysticism. This is best exemplified by the beliefs espoused by a number of South American (predominantly Argentinean) writers such as Guillermo Terrera, who have come up with an entire cosmology of lost cities and hidden human history.
Terrera makes clear distinctions between real lost cities and the purely metaphysical ones (subterranean and presumably metaphysical ones), yet making the latter no less "real" than the cities of the Mayas, Incas or Aztecs. The metaphysical cities would include Thule, Agarthi, and Shamballah. Central to this cosmology is the magical mountain of Uritorco, a place of new age pilgrimage. "The link between the knowledge of the Comechingones and their ancestral beliefs," indicates Terrera, "was proven decades ago when the legendary Staff of Power or Stone of Wisdom was found in the vicinity of the Uritorco by Master Ofelio Ulises in 1934, shortly after returning from the Tibetan city of Shamballah (sic) where he studied for eight years. It was precisely in this city that he was shown the location of the basalt rod whose construction had been ordered by the chieftain Multán eight thousand years ago."
Understandably, Terrera's statements are hard to digest, but he is hardly alone in his cavilations. French author René Guénón posited the belief that geography does not take into consideration the folds or "wrinkles" which can and do occur on the surface of the world. Dubbing these irregularities as dwipas (a word of Hindu origin), seven of which are accessible to the initiates. These are worlds much like our own, holding oceans and continents. At least one of these is inhabited and holds the city of the "King of the World", a place where sacred traditions are upheld and where initiates go to be tested. Guénón states that secret societies on our world are sworn to protect the knowledge of how to reach this place--to the death, if necessary--from mere mortals.
There are still indications that South America may contain disturbingly "real" cities: A very curious event took place in the late 1960's while Louis Pauwels was putting the finishing touches on his classic La revolte des Magiciens: his co-author, Jacques Bergier, had received a puzzling mineral sample from a Brazilian mining and metallurgy firm called Magnesita S.A., which looked for magnesium derivatives for use in diverse metallurgical processes. The company's manager, Miguel Cahen, had sent Bergier a sample of a strange crystal found on the borders of the mysterious region of inner Brazil known as the "forbidden land". Under analysis, the shard proved to be a fragment of magnesium carbonate of uncommon transparency and purity, "with very curious properties on the infrared spectrum, emitting polarized radiation," Pawels adds. Since the crystal did not match anything in the mineralogy texts, Bergier turned to a French government agency which ruled the crystal's origin as artificial. No further tests were possible since no other samples of the material could be located.
The "forbidden land" where this mineral oddity was found is none other than the region which lies between Brazil's Amazon, Tapajós and Xingú rivers, the source of so many rumors and contradictions.
The City of the Caesars
With a name like la Ciudad de los Césares (city of the Caesars), this lost city should surely conjure up visions of ancient Rome. But it in fact refers to a lost city of Patagonia which has been the subject of numerous quests over the centuries. Tradition holds that this astonishing city was located at edge of an Andean lake and that its towers and spires reflected lights of gold and silver, if not the materials themselves. Contemporary folklore indicates that the city becomes visible only on Good Friday and then disappears -- a South American Brigadoon.
But it wasn't Brigadoon that the 16th-century conquistadores were looking for as they set out on horseback in search of this hidden kingdom. Stories of the El Dorado-like wealth of this mountain city were common among the rustic tribes of the area, and the belief soon spread that this magical city had such an abundance of precious metals that even the most common tools were made of gold and silver. It was variously referred to as "the enchanted city," "Trapalanda," and "Lin Lin" before finally being known as la Ciudad de los Césares. Spanish chroniclers believed that the city had been founded by nobles from the Inca's court, fleeing from the depredations of Diego de Almagro, and defended by fierce Araucanian warriors.
The city acquired its curious name not from any ancient monarch but from the expedition of Francisco César in 1526, which hoped to conquer the tantalizing prize and return its wealth to Spain: setting out from a fort at Sancti Spriritus, his band of soldiers penetrated the Andean range and found tribes with great wealth in gold, silver and cattle, which the bold explorer brought back to his fort, only to find it destroyed.
In 1620, Captain Juan Fernández (whose name still survives as that of an archipelago off the Chilean coast) approached the supposed location of la Ciudad de los Césares from the island of Chiloé, crossing the tortuous glaciers of three-thousand-foot Mt. Tronador, until reaching lake Nahuel Huapi. Despite indications that this was the Andean lake on whose shores the fabulous city existed, nothing was found. Seven years later, Fernández led a 200-man expedition north of the location of modern-day Neuquén and but failed to find reach his goal.
Descriptions of Ciudad de los Césares were very detailed: "It had walls with moats, ravellins and a single entrance guarded by a drawbridge...its buildings were sumptuous, almost all of them of dressed stone and well-roofed, in the Spanish style..Nothing could equal the opulence of its temples, covered in solid silver. The same metal was employed in making pots, knives and even have an idea of their wealth, the residents sat on golden seats within their homes. They were fair, blond, blue-eyed and with dense beards; their language was incomprehensible to the Spaniards and the indians alike.
Well into the 18th century, the Captaincy General of Chile ordered his chief auditor to compile nine volumes of information on the "lost city" based on a proposal by Capt. Manuel Josef de Orjuela in 1781 to launch an expedition aimed at subjugating Ciudad de los Césares. Don Pedro de Angelis published a condensed version of these findings in his Colección. In 1863, Martin de Moussy's Atlas located the "fabulous ciudad de los Césares" as being in the general vicinity of lake Nahuel Huapi.
Historian Enrique de Gandía mentions in his Historia Crítica de la Conquista Americana (1929) other efforts at finding this mythical city as well as two other locations--the "Sierra de Plata" (Silver Mountains) and the reino del Rey Blanco (realm of the White King)--a sort of Patagonian "Prester John" whose allegiance was sought by the conquistadores. As late as the 1930's, the City of the Caesars was being sought in earnest by Francisco P. Moreno, a student of Patagonian tribes.
Patagonia's Enigmatic Citadel
But the ubiquitous Ciudad de los Césares is hardly the only anomalous location that Argentina can contribute to the lore of lost cities.
For a number of years, Grupo Delphos, spearheaded by Argentinean scientist/researcher Ing. Flugberto Ramos, has paid special attention to a curious geological feature on Argentina's Atlantic Coast which could well prove to be the best documented discovery of a supposedly mythical lost city.
The location appears on the maps as cerro El Fuerte (Fort Hill) and dominates the approach to Golfo San Matías. Seen from a distance, the perfectly sided plateau looks like an island rather than a rocky outcropping. Some of the surface stones appear to have been worked by stonemasons many centuries ago, and a curious vitrified substance has been found covering curious drawings. Walls of superimposed stone held together by some kind of whitish mortar have also been discovered. Perhaps most important is the unexpected discovery of a totemic figure inscribed with unusual carvings and, in Grupo Delphos' opinion, "completely different from any object made in the Americas."
Historians scoff at these suggestions and geologists state that the only fort present is the plateau's distinctly military aspect. Yet French maps of the area, dating as far back as 1779, label the feature ancien fort abandonné (ancient ruined fort), and a British map from 1849 does the same. Flugberto's team has further discovered clearly artificial features such as pier and four docks.
In the light of these findings, scholars are willing to concede the possibility that pirates may have fortified the point in the past and used it as safe haven. But even the safety of these conjectures fell by the wayside when the group discovered a slab of dressed stone clearly marked with a Templar cross!
This discovery prompted Flugberto to offer the following working hypothesis: "In pre-Columbian times, some centuries before and after 1000 A.D., a series of enclaves may have existed in Patagonia which were established by some kind of Templar or proto-Templar order, made up of fair-skinned indoeuropeans. There would have been at least three cities--a fortified port on the Atlantic, and another on the Pacific, both at the same latitude. The third would have been in the Andean foothills, corresponding to the Ciudad de los Césares."
The suggestion that the mountain city of silver and gold described earlier in this article may be connected to the mystery citadel spawns further speculation, much to the fury of academics. Could these cities have been supplied from Europe by an order not linked to the medieval Catholic church, but following its own precepts? The members of Grupo Delphos have tentatively proposed the boldest concept yet--the citadel, and indeed the elusive Ciudad de los Césares, were the enclaves of an order entrusted with the keeping of the Holy Grail [author's italics], which would have been removed after the Spanish takeover of these distant lands.
Despite the outrageosness of this notion, the reader is urged not to throw his/her hands up in despair: an old French book about the Holy Grail, the Livre du Graal (edited by Victoria Cirlot, Rama XI Eds. Paris), makes mention of a castle in a "strange land overseas" whose dimensions, physical layout regarding the local environment, and characteristics of the bay in which it is located closely match those of the Patagonian citadel...
Archaeologists raise their voices in protest against those who would purvey stories of mysterious places while suggesting that their existence in any way, shape or form contravenes what has already been determined by academe. Any questionable ruin in the Central Asian desert becomes an abandoned Buddhist temple; any curious feature in the Americas becomes a geological anomaly; oral traditions regarding the existence of a given locale are chalked up to mistranslation and misinterpretation. Other cynics will say that dreamers are bound to fill in any empty space on the map with ruined cities of past glory and lost kingdoms simply because "something" must have thrived once in these barren areas.
Nevertheless, millenia are like seconds in the inexorable procession of history. Who can say what future generations will look back in time and think about mythical cities that may be languishing in oblivion...cities with names like London or New York.